英検2・準2級 & センター試験
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英検2級または準2級の合格を目指しながら、大学入試センター試験英語でも高得点をねらいましょう。
全10回の連載で、真の英語力を鍛える効果的な学習法を伝授していきます。

第8回 センター英語筆記 第3問C

はじめに

 早いもので今年もあとひと月ですね。先月は、複数のパラグラフがどのような論理関係で結ばれているかに注意を払いながら読む練習をしましまた。そして、その際には、ディスコースマーカーをヒントにすると論理関係が把握しやすい、ということを学びました。先月までに学んだことを活用しつつ、今月は第3問Cの対策を行います。第3問Cは、英文全体の論理構成を把握する力を問う問題だからです。では、がんばっていきましょう。

実際の問題に挑戦!

 さっそく、平成24年のセンター英語第3問Cを解いてみましょう。

[ 平成24年 センター試験(本試験) 英語筆記試験第3問C (一部抜粋) ]

第3問 C 次の文章の [ 32 ] ~ [ 34 ] に入れるのに最も適当なものを、それぞれ下の①~④のうちから一つずつ選べ。

  Do you like eating “mixed nuts” while watching TV and movies at home? Since both almonds and peanuts can be found in the mixed nuts sold at grocery stores in Japan, you might assume that they are similar types of food. Indeed, [   32  ] . For instance, they are both nutritious as sources of minerals and vitamins. At the same time, however, some people can have allergic reactions to them. According to recent research, many children suffer from peanut and almond allergies.
  Despite these similarities, however, almonds and peanuts are quite different. First, although they are both called nuts, they are classified differently in plant science. The almond is considered a drupe. This kind of plant bears fruit, inside of which is a hard shell with a seed. Other examples of drupes are peaches and plums, but with almonds, the seed is the part we eat. In contrast, the peanut is classified as a legume, a type of bean. The peanut grows underground, while the almond grows on trees. Moreover, each peanut shell contains from one to three peanuts as seeds, while the almond fruit has only one seed.
  Second, almonds and peanuts [  33  ] . Almonds came from the Middle East. Gradually, they spread to northern Africa and southern Europe along the shores of the Mediterranean, and later to other parts of the world. Peanuts, however, were first grown in South America, and later they were introduced to other parts of the world.
  In conclusion, the product that we know as mixed nuts actually [  34  ] . Almonds and peanuts are plants which differ greatly, despite their notable similarities.

[ 32 ]
① it may be difficult to find some similarities between them
② many consumers know about differences between them
③ there is a wide variety in each package of mixed nuts
④ they share some interesting characteristics with each other

 

[ 33 ]
① are produced in different countries today
② are similar in that both are grown as crops
③ differ in terms of their place of origin
④ originated in the same part of Africa

 

[ 34 ]
① consists of foods with distinct characteristics
② contains foods having several similar qualities
③ includes different foods that may harm human health
④ offers good examples of plants defined as true nuts

 

トピックセンテンスを見つける

 いかがでしたか? それぞれのパラグラフのトピックセンテンスを見つけられたでしょうか(トピックセンテンスについては、本連載第6回を参照)。下記の英文中では、トピックセンテンスに下線を引いてあります。また、ディスコースマーカーは赤字で表示してあります。

 <表1>
第1パラグラフ アーモンドとピーナッツには類似点がある。
第2パラグラフ アーモンドは核果に、ピーナッツはマメ科の植物に分類されるという相違点もある。
第3パラグラフ もう一つの相違点は、原産地が異なることである。
第4パラグラフ アーモンドとピーナッツは、かなり異なる直物である。

  Do you like eating “mixed nuts” while watching TV and movies at home? Since both almonds and peanuts can be found in the mixed nuts sold at grocery stores in Japan, you might assume that they are similar types of food. Indeed, [   32  ] . For instance, they are both nutritious as sources of minerals and vitamins. At the same time, however, some people can have allergic reactions to them. According to recent research, many children suffer from peanut and almond allergies.
  Despite these similarities, however, almonds and peanuts are quite different. First, although they are both called nuts, they are classified differently in plant science. The almond is considered a drupe. This kind of plant bears fruit, inside of which is a hard shell with a seed. Other examples of drupes are peaches and plums, but with almonds, the seed is the part we eat. In contrast, the peanut is classified as a legume, a type of bean. The peanut grows underground, while the almond grows on trees. Moreover, each peanut shell contains from one to three peanuts as seeds, while the almond fruit has only one seed.
  Second, almonds and peanuts [  33  ] . Almonds came from the Middle East. Gradually, they spread to northern Africa and southern Europe along the shores of the Mediterranean, and later to other parts of the world. Peanuts, however, were first grown in South America, and later they were introduced to other parts of the world.
  In conclusion, the product that we know as mixed nuts actually [  34  ] . Almonds and peanuts are plants which differ greatly, despite their notable similarities.

ディスコースマーカーに着目する

 では、解説をしていきましょう。

<問32>

 問32は、前回学んだ「ディスコースマーカー」に注意すれば、正解が得られます。Indeedを受ける [ 32 ] は、Indeedの直前の文と一致または支持するものでなければなりません。直前の文がアーモンドとピーナッツの類似点を主張している文ですから、 [ 32 ] に入る文は、類似点を強調する内容である必要があります。そこで、shareを含む選択肢 ④they share some interesting characteristics with each other が正解となります。

<問33>

 問33も、ディスコースマーカーに着目します。直前に、Secondとありますが、何に対してSecondなのでしょうか。そうです。2つ目の相違点としてのsecondですね。第2パラグラフでアーモンドとピーナッツの相違点の1つ目を説明したことを受けています。すると、almonds and peanuts [ 33 ] は第3パラグラフのトピックセンテンスであることが見えてきます。支持文(本連載第6回参照)のAlmonds came from以下を読むと、アーモンドとピーナッツの原産地のことについて触れているので、選択肢 ③ differ in terms of their place of origin が選べますね。

<問34>

 まずは、第4パラグラフの先頭にあるディスコースマーカー、In conclusionに着目して下さい。In conclusionは、このパラグラフがこの英文全体のまとめであることを示しています。つまり、英文全体を貫く主張は、「アーモンドとピーナッツは違う」ということです。これを頭に置いて選択肢を眺めると、選択肢 ① consists of foods with distinct characteristics 以外に正解はありません。distinctというのはdifferent(異なる)の言い換えであることが見抜ければ、正解に至るのはもっと容易でしたね。

 この英文は、アーモンドとピーナッツの類似点や相違点を比較検討しながら、それぞれの特性を明らかにする論理構成になっていました。このような型を「比較・対照」と呼びます。先月号で紹介した「原因・結果」、「問題・解決」型を含めて、この3つの型が論理構成の代表選手です。しっかりと記憶に残しておきましょう。

英検2級大問3,大問4の問題で練習しよう

 いち早くディスコースマーカーに着目し、複数のパラグラフの論理関係をつかめるようになるためには、やはり、日頃からの練習が欠かせません。その材料としてピッタリなのが、英検2級の大問3や大問4の問題です。これらの問題には、センター試験第3問Cと同様に、しっかりとしたパラグラフ構造を持つ英文が出題されるからです。では、さっそくやってみましょう。

[ 2012年度第3回 英検2級大問3B (一部抜粋) ]

次の英文を読み、その文意にそって(   )に入れるのに最も適切なものを1,2,3,4の中から一つ選びなさい。

 A New Kind of Ownership

  During the 20th century, developed countries experienced a "consumer revolution." As living standards rose, ordinary people became able to buy their own homes and a range of consumer goods to put in them. At the same time, companies began to produce cheaper televisions, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, and other household items. People bought these things not only because they made their lives easier and more enjoyable, but also because they were a sign of (  30  ). Owning them showed that you were a successful member of society. Many people felt ashamed if they did not have such consumer goods in their homes.

  Now, however, some experts in the United States say that a new attitude toward owning things is developing, especially among people in their 20s. They call this way of thinking "collaborative consumption." This means that people are no longer trying to own as many things as possible. (  31  ), they borrow them for short periods of time from other people. This new kind of consumption has been made possible by the Internet. For example, an Internet site called SnapGoods allows people to search for the owner of an item who will let them use it for a small amount of money or even for free. Rather than buying an expensive tool that you are unlikely to use again, you can go onto the site and look for someone living nearby who is willing to (  32  ) you one.

  More and more websites like SnapGoods are now being created, covering everything from cars to cameras. People who use such sites report many (33). An obvious one is financial. To avoid paying a large amount of money for something they will only use a few times, people can rent it cheaply just when they need it. Another benefit is that these websites allow people to meet others in their community. This system cuts down on waste and therefore is good for the environment.

(30)  1 trust   2 status   3 youth   4 friendship

 

(31)  1 Instead   2 Overall   3 By accident   4 What is more

 

(32)  1 find   2 choose   3 lend   4 make

 

(33)    1 ideas   2 prices   3 mistakes   4 advantages

 

論理構造をつかみながら読む

 いかがでしたか? それぞれのトピックセンテンスをまとめておきます。ただし、ここでは「トピックセンテンスの和訳=下の要約文」とはなっていません。

 <表2>
第1パラグラフ 20世紀、先進国の人々は、生活を楽しみ自分のステイタスを誇示するために、大量の商品を購入し所有した。
第2パラグラフ しかし、インターネットの普及のお蔭で、物を買わなくても借りて済ます人が、特に若い人の間で増えてきた。
第3パラグラフ 借りることの良さは、経済的負担を軽くし、環境にも良いことである。

 A New Kind of Ownership

  During the 20th century, developed countries experienced a "consumer revolution." As living standards rose, ordinary people became able to buy their own homes and a range of consumer goods to put in them. At the same time, companies began to produce cheaper televisions, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, and other household items. People bought these things not only because they made their lives easier and more enjoyable, but also because they were a sign of (  30  ). Owning them showed that you were a successful member of society. Many people felt ashamed if they did not have such consumer goods in their homes.

  Now, however, some experts in the United States say that a new attitude toward owning things is developing, especially among people in their 20s. They call this way of thinking "collaborative consumption." This means that people are no longer trying to own as many things as possible. (  31  ), they borrow them for short periods of time from other people. This new kind of consumption has been made possible by the Internet. For example, an Internet site called SnapGoods allows people to search for the owner of an item who will let them use it for a small amount of money or even for free. Rather than buying an expensive tool that you are unlikely to use again, you can go onto the site and look for someone living nearby who is willing to (  32  ) you one.

  More and more websites like SnapGoods are now being created, covering everything from cars to cameras. People who use such sites report many (33). An obvious one is financial. To avoid paying a large amount of money for something they will only use a few times, people can rent it cheaply just when they need it. Another benefit is that these websites allow people to meet others in their community. This system cuts down on waste and therefore is good for the environment.

<問30>

 問30は、パラグラフ内の読みがしっかりできていれば解けます。(30)直後で Owning them showed that you were a successful member of society と言っているので、選択肢2 statusがピッタリですね。

<問31>

 ここは、ディスコースマーカーの問題です。つまり、(31)の前後の文の論理関係を考えることで、正解が見えてきます。前文では「人々はもはやできるだけ多くの物を所有しようとは思わなくなった」と言い、(31)の後ろの文では、「他人から短期間ものを借りる」と言っています。この2つの命題を論理的につなげることができるのは、選択肢1 Instead 「(もはや所有するの)ではなくて、~」ですね。

<問32>

 買うのではなくて、あなたに貸してくれる(lend)人を探せばいいので、正解は選択肢3 lendになります。

<問33>

 パラグラフ内の論理構造の問題です。ものを購入するのではなく、インターネットのサイト上などで貸してくれる人を見つけることの利点が述べられています。同じパラグラフ内の後の英文に、An obvious one~とAnother benefit~が見えるので、(33)にはbenefitsまたはそれと同意の単語が入ることがわかります。Benefitsは選択肢に用意されていないので、言い換えの選択肢4 advantages を選びます。

 今年もあとわずか、どうか、良い年をお迎えください。

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柳川 浩三 (やながわ・こうぞう)

法政大学理工学部准教授。Ph.D(ベッドフォードシャー大学大学院(英国)。日本大学文理学部英文学科卒。神奈川県立高校の英語教師として25年間勤務したのち、現職。専門は英語リスニングおよび言語テスト。趣味は剣道(現在、剣道錬士六段)。